(PHP 4, PHP 5)
extract — Import variables into the current symbol table from an array
Import variables from an array into the current symbol table.
extract() checks each key to see whether it has a valid variable name. It also checks for collisions with existing variables in the symbol table.
An associative array. This function treats keys as variable names and values as variable values. For each key/value pair it will create a variable in the current symbol table, subject to extract_type and prefix parameters.
You must use an associative array, a numerically indexed array will not produce results unless you use EXTR_PREFIX_ALL or EXTR_PREFIX_INVALID.
The way invalid/numeric keys and collisions are treated is determined by the extract_type . It can be one of the following values:
If extract_type is not specified, it is assumed to be EXTR_OVERWRITE.
Note that prefix is only required if extract_type is EXTR_PREFIX_SAME, EXTR_PREFIX_ALL, EXTR_PREFIX_INVALID or EXTR_PREFIX_IF_EXISTS. If the prefixed result is not a valid variable name, it is not imported into the symbol table. Prefixes are automatically separated from the array key by an underscore character.
Returns the number of variables successfully imported into the symbol table.
|4.3.0||EXTR_REFS was added.|
|4.2.0||EXTR_IF_EXISTS and EXTR_PREFIX_IF_EXISTS were added.|
|4.0.5||This function now returns the number of variables extracted. EXTR_PREFIX_INVALID was added. EXTR_PREFIX_ALL includes numeric variables as well.|
Example #1 extract() example
A possible use for extract() is to import into the symbol table variables contained in an associative array returned by wddx_deserialize().
/* Suppose that $var_array is an array returned from
$size = "large";
$var_array = array("color" => "blue",
"size" => "medium",
"shape" => "sphere");
extract($var_array, EXTR_PREFIX_SAME, "wddx");
echo "$color, $size, $shape, $wddx_size\n";
The above example will output:
blue, large, sphere, medium
The $size wasn't overwritten, because we specified EXTR_PREFIX_SAME, which resulted in $wddx_size being created. If EXTR_SKIP was specified, then $wddx_size wouldn't even have been created. EXTR_OVERWRITE would have caused $size to have value "medium", and EXTR_PREFIX_ALL would result in new variables being named $wddx_color, $wddx_size, and $wddx_shape.
Do not use extract() on untrusted data, like user-input ($_GET, ...). If you do, for example, if you want to run old code that relies on register_globals temporarily, make sure you use one of the non-overwriting extract_type values such as EXTR_SKIP and be aware that you should extract in the same order that's defined in variables_order within the php.ini.